// Popular Information Technology Terms

Technology Terminology: From Computers to the Internet

Our glossary of terms is a basic guide to some of the most common technical terms and jargon used in the computer industry. It is designed to help our clients better understand and navigate the complex world of information technology. From “bandwidth” and “encryption” to “malware” and “server”, the Coastal PC Support glossary covers some essential definitions helpful for clients to know.


Access Point

Access points, such as wireless routers, grant wireless devices the ability to connect to a network. The majority of access points have built-in routers – other types have to be connected to an external router in order to provide network access. Access points are typically hardwired to other devices like broadband modems or network switches.

Access points are a key component of wireless connectivity, and can be found in homes, businesses, and public locations. Residential access points come in the form of dedicated routers or integrated modems with built-in Wi-Fi capabilities. Business networks may involve multiple discrete access points to enable efficient coverage across large facilities while also providing secure connections to their central network. Publicly available Wi-Fi is increasingly common as well, as many retailers provide free hotspots for customers’ use within store premises. Many cities have begun deploying outdoor transmitters as access points connected to street lamps and other objects throughout urban areas.

Access points are commonly used to provide secure and convenient wireless access for users – from the internet, closed networks, or files on a server. Wi-Fi is one of the most common connection types, but various other options such as Bluetooth devices may be available as well.



An iterative approach to software development that emphasizes collaboration, flexibility, and rapid response to change.


Agile Methodology

A project management approach that emphasizes flexibility and responsiveness to change over rigid planning and strict adherence to a plan.


API (Application Programming Interface)

A set of rules and protocols that allows different software applications to communicate with each other.



Applications provide an invaluable service to users, functioning as the interface between them and their computer. These programs – web browsers, email clients, word processors, games, utilities, and many others – are essential for running tasks on your device in a variety of different ways. System software consisting of compilers and assemblers makes it possible for applications to run smoothly, as without them no application would be able operate successfully. When setting up a machine you can choose which specific apps will work best depending upon how each fits in with your daily needs – from office suites to security protocols – there is usually one or more specialized app available for any task.

Macintosh and Windows applications serve the same purpose, despite their different technical formats. Mac programs are usually referred to as “applications” while those on a Windows platform typically go by the name of executable files. To reflect this difference in naming conventions, Macintosh software uses .APP file extensions compared to the .EXE extension seen with most programs designed for use with a Microsoft-based operating system.


Artificial intelligence (AI)

The development of computer systems that can perform tasks that usually require human intelligence, such as recognizing speech or images, making decisions, and learning.



A copy of data or information that can be used to restore lost or damaged files or systems.



Bandwidth refers to the maximum amount of data that can be transmitted over a network or internet connection in a given amount of time, typically measured in bits per second (bps) or megabits per second (Mbps). In simpler terms, bandwidth is the amount of data that can be sent and received over a connection in a certain amount of time. The higher the bandwidth, the more data that can be transmitted in a given period, allowing for faster and more reliable data transfer.


Big Data

The large volume of structured and unstructured data that inundates a business on a day-to-day basis.


Base Station

Base stations are essential technological tools for connecting to the internet wirelessly. Initially associated with cellular phone towers – in the computer world they refer to a wireless access point allowing users with Wi-Fi compatible devices like laptops and tablets to connect easily using an industry-standard protocol such as 802.11b or 802.11g. Manufacturers of these products include Netgear, Linksys, D-Link, Apple Computer, and others – so there are multiple options available.



A decentralized digital ledger of transactions that is secure, transparent, and immutable.



Bridges offer the transformative ability to connect and communicate between multiple networks – regardless of if they are Ethernet or Wi-Fi based. By offering a secure connection, these powerful devices allow for seamless communication as though all connected systems were part of one local area network.

Network bridges can take several different forms. Many bridges are dedicated hardware devices that only provide a bridge with no additional features – even though a bridge and a router may look similar – a bridge does not assign IP addresses, keep a log of network activity, or provide a firewall. Dedicated Ethernet bridges typically only have two ports to connect to and bridge two routers or switches. Most Wi-Fi bridges have a single Ethernet port and connect to a single Wi-Fi network, giving the device or network connected to the Ethernet port access to the Wi-Fi network as if they were the same network.

Bridging mode enables existing Wi-Fi access points to seamlessly join two separate networks together, allowing for efficient data communication. Whereas bridges facilitate a connection between compatible local area networks (LANs) at the basic levels of networking protocol structure, gateways offer a more comprehensive solution by linking different network types and providing translation capabilities across multiple layers of the operation system interface.

Computers can become powerhouses of connectivity, capable of bridging two disparate networks with multiple network adapters, regardless if they run Windows, Mac OS, or Unix-based operating systems.



A software application that allows users to access and view information on the internet. (see also Web Browser)

Google Chrome (Developed by Google) Chrome is a widely used browser known for its speed, simplicity, and ease of use.
Safari (Developed by Apple) Safari is the default browser on Macs and iOS devices. It is also available for Windows.
Mozilla Firefox (Developed by the Mozilla Foundation) Firefox is an open-source browser known for its privacy features and customization options.
Microsoft Edge (Developed by Microsoft) Edge is the default browser on Windows 10 and is available on other platforms.
Opera (Developed by Opera Software) Opera is a fast and secure browser known for its built-in ad-blocker and VPN.



Computers store essential data to ensure a smooth and efficient operation. This is made possible through the power of caching: an advanced process which stores recently used information in order to access it more quickly on demand.

To ensure optimum performance, caching takes place in the background without any input from you. However, through your browser settings, you can adjust your cache size and clear it out as desired to keep everything running smoothly. There are several types of caches at work – browser, disk, memory, and processor.

Browser Cache: Browsers make web navigation faster and more efficient by caching webpage data. Every time you visit a page, your browser stores elements like images, HTML files and CSS/JavaScript to ensure they don’t need downloading again when navigating the same site – letting you save both bandwidth usage and valuable seconds of loading time.

Disk Cache: HDDs and SSDs feature disk caches, or RAM that helps to enhance the drive’s performance. For example, opening a folder with numerous files may take mere seconds if already cached in memory. Investment in the installation of extra RAM can go a long way towards improving overall performance.

Memory Cache: Applications can optimize performance by loading necessary data into RAM, or system memory. Through this caching process, users are provided with a faster experience when working on demanding tasks such as video editing – reducing lag and increasing processing power for smooth file imports and edits.

Processor Cache: Processor caches offer an efficient way to store and access a great amount of frequently used instructions. These are located in close proximity to the processor, which can be broken down into three hierarchical levels: L1 cache (approximately 64 KB), L2 cache (around 2 MB), and advanced processors like the L3 cache for peak performance. Data stored in these caches is swiftly accessed by CPUs.


Cloud Computing

The delivery of computing services, including servers, storage, databases, networking, software, and analytics, over the internet.



Central Processing Unit, or CPU, is the main part of a computer that processes instructions input by the user. The computer’s operating system and any applications are run by the CPU, and it continuously receives input from the active software programs running and user prompts. The CPU contains at least one processor, which is the actual chip inside the CPU that performs calculations. Today’s CPUs are incredibly powerful, with multiple processing cores powering some of the most advanced computers. Dual-core and quad-core models have become commonplace in consumer electronics, while more sophisticated hexa- or octo core setups can be found in high performance computing systems such as servers where up to 12 processors may work together.

It is not uncommon for the terms “processor” and “CPU” to be used interchangeably in conversations about computing. However, a more accurate distinction between these two can help avoid confusion – each processing unit should be referred to as a CPU while individual processors within it are termed processing cores.



Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) are often used as a method to format the layout of websites and can help to define table sizes, text and font styles, and other aspects of web pages that previously could only be defined via HTML. CSS can also help with defining cell padding and border styles in tables, or with adding extra dimensions such as color and thickness around images.

CSS is a tool for web developers that enables them to create a uniform look across multiple pages of a website. By utilizing one centralized style sheet, they can easily make any desired changes rapidly and with minimal effort – including modifications such as increased text size or various font types.



The practice of protecting internet-connected systems, including hardware, software, and data, from theft, damage, or unauthorized access.



A collection of data that can be organized, managed, and accessed by computer systems.



A set of practices that combines software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops) to enable organizations to deliver applications and services more quickly and reliably.



A DMZ is a secure zone that exists between private networks and the public internet, providing an extra layer of defense for IT systems. It can consist of multiple computer hosts to ensure comprehensive protection from external threats.

By utilizing a DMZ between an intranet and external access, businesses can add another layer of protection to their internal work systems. Rather than exposing sensitive employee workstations directly to the internet, public servers such as web or email are placed in this security zone – providing peace of mind that unauthorized external attacks will not be able to infiltrate the internal or local area network (LAN).

A DMZ can be deployed in two distinct configurations to maximize security – single and dual firewall architectures. In a single firewall setup, an all-inclusive access between the intranet and Internet Service Provider (ISP) manages traffic flow. Dual firewalls add an additional quarantined separation of networks enabled – both an external signaling wall protecting resources from malicious incoming threats coupled with another layer separating the internal network from outside Internet access.



Domain Name System (DNS) translates domain names into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, allowing for access to a specific Internet location via its domain name. Domain names serve as memorizable names for websites and other services on the Internet. However, computers access Internet devices by their IP addresses. DNS enables you to visit a website by typing in the domain name rather than the IP address. As an example, to visit a businessname.com website you can type “businessname.com” (or .org, .biz, .gov. depending on the Top Level Domain System or TLD used) in the address bar of the web browser, instead of having to know the IP address (eg: ##.##.##.##). DNS also simplifies email addresses, since it translates the domain name (following the “@” symbol) to the appropriate IP address.

Domain names are like digital street addresses – in order to access a specific website, computers need the right instructions on how to get there. Thankfully these instructions come courtesy of two or more vital name servers assigned at registration time and managed by your domain name registrar.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) cache DNS records to reduce traffic and increase internet speeds. When an IP address changes, however, this can lead to requests going to the wrong server or no response at all. To ensure fast connections for users across the globe, these caches are updated regularly – often within a few hours up until several days of each other.



A method of converting data into a coded or scrambled format to protect it from unauthorized access.



Ethernet is a powerful technology that revolutionized the way we connect computer systems. First introduced in 1980, and standardized three years later by IEEE 802.3, this system of wiring allows us to create secure local area networks (LANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs), and wide area networks (WANs). By connecting multiple computers together with effective protocols controlling data transmission – while avoiding interference from simultaneous communication between other similar systems – it has helped to connect the world like never before.


Executable File

Executable files are tools that can run programs or execute code – both compiled and scripted – in order to help get tasks completed quickly and efficiently.

Computers have the ability to turn source code written by developers into executable files, which operate with a specified extension depending on the operating system. On Windows computers these are known as .EXE and Macintosh devices utilize an application specific format as .APP. These types of files allow for direct execution from CPU’s in each respective operating system (OS) environment, however they cannot be transferred between platforms.

Unknown executable files have the potential to be malicious, so always exercise caution when downloading any unknown file from a source that you are unsure about. Even compiled and script-based executables—like VBScript (.VBS) for Windows or AppleScript (.SCPT) on Mac OS—can run harmful code which could damage both your digital security as well as other programs running on your system.

File extensions used for executable files on Windows and Macintosh systems include:
Windows – .EXE, .COM, .BAT, .VB, .VBS, .WSF, .PIF



A physical firewall is much like an impenetrable fortress, safeguarding a building from wildfire. In the world of computing, firewalls serve as intricate filters between trusted systems and networks, such as that provided by the internet. Considered guardians against malicious intrusion or data theft attempts, computer-driven firewalls vigilantly protect essential information while allowing appropriate access to flow forth unhindered.

Creating a strong network firewall is an essential part of any organization’s security strategy. Firewalls can be hardware or software-based and provide crucial protection against external threats targeting the internal LAN environment.

Firewalls are an essential security measure and can be adapted to fit any organization’s needs. Setting up effective firewalls requires careful consideration: you must decide which traffic is allowed, identify possible risks, create a blacklist of unauthorized Internet Protocol (IP) addresses (as well as whitelisting trusted sources), and ensure the firewall protects against outgoing threats such as spam or malicious attempts at data breach.



Gateways act as entry points to and from networks, allowing safe passage of data through routers, firewalls, servers, or other devices. As virtual gatekeepers they enable the flow of data traffic. Acting as a sentry for all data that flows in or out, they also act as translators – interpreting content from external sources into formats that internal devices can understand.

Home networks rely on routers, firewalls, and proxy servers to help ensure the security of their data. Routers allow local devices access to resources over the Internet – while firewalls block any incoming traffic from suspicious or unauthorized sources. Proxy servers add another layer of protection by providing granular control when it comes to which websites outside visitors are able to access – keeping confidential information safe along with other sensitive material.


Hard Disk

A computer hard disk is the reliable saver of data and programs. It consists of a spindle with magnetic platters, which allows information to remain securely stored even when you power off. This feature sets it apart from Random Access Memory (RAM), where any unsaved changes are lost at shutdown. The hard drive houses this system, facilitating read/write operations between itself and the Central Processing Unit (CPU). Next time you save something on your computer, think about all those ones and zeros being meticulously organized.



The physical components of a computer system, such as the motherboard, CPU, and memory.



Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) basically refers to the computive language involved in creating web pages. Hypertext refers to the hyperlinks that an HTML page might contain, and Markup Language means the way tags are used to define the way a page layout appears and the elements within the page.

Over the past few decades, HTML has become an essential language for developing and formatting dynamic websites. Despite technological advancements in website development, it is remarkable to note that HTML itself has been simplified – through cascading style sheets and JavaScript programming codes which eliminate redundant code used on previous versions of web pages created using earlier formats such as XHTML 1.0 or even 4.01. Additionally, a variety of server-side scripting languages now exist for creating content from scripts rather than traditional coding techniques – yet these must still be formatted by use of valid outputted HTML objects for display within browsers.


Internet of Things (IoT)

The network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items that are embedded with sensors, software, and network connectivity that enables them to collect and exchange data.


InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)

The Interplanetary File System (IPFS) is a distributed file storage protocol that allows computers all over the globe to store and serve files as part of a giant peer-to-peer network. Any computer, anywhere in the world, can download the IPFS software and start hosting and serving files.


IP Address

Internet Protocol (IP) is a unique address that identifies a device on the Internet or a local network. It allows a system to be recognized by other systems connected via the internet. IP addresses are like digital fingerprints – no two are exactly alike. They act as an identifier, allowing devices to communicate with others over the Internet or a local network. Although there has been great advancement in technology since their inception, today we use either IPv4 or IPv6 formats for this purpose

The InterNIC offers three classes of IPv4 addresses for registration, with the smallest being Class C (256 IP addresses), followed by Class B (65,536) and largest block is Class A (16.77 million). Together these address sets range from 000.000.000 to 255.255 .255 .255 representing a total number of 4 billion possible IPv4 addresses – once seemingly limitless but straining under current Internet demand as providers now turn increasingly towards more expansive IPv6 options.


Information Technology (IT) is the general term for the management and use of computer technology in businesses. From managing data storage, retrieval, and processing to maintaining corporate telecommunications systems and internal networking operations – IT professionals play a crucial role in centralizing digital processes. Their functions empower business operations with secure email systems, telephone services, internet usage capabilities, and internal network structures – helping companies around the globe to stay competitive in an ever-changing market landscape.

IT Roles

IT professionals provide a range of vital services to keep business operations running smoothly. Operations roles cover tech support, device management and software maintenance. Infrastructure personnel are responsible for physical hardware set-up such as cabling, routers, servers, and workstations – as well as proprietary programming when necessary. Governance ensures the policies in place allow IT systems to match the needs of all stakeholders, helping to ensure that an organization functions at its peak potential.



A programming language used to create interactive and dynamic web pages.




A Local Area Network (LAN) is the perfect way to keep you connected. It creates a dedicated, secure space with both wired and wireless connections that allow all your devices such as computers, phones, and tablets to access the same vast resources – from streaming content to work projects. All while being limited in scope, so it remains safe within its localized environment such as your home or office building.


Machine Learning

A subset of AI that enables machines to learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed.



Short for “malicious software”, malware is a type of software that is specifically designed to cause harm to computer systems, networks, and devices. Malware can take many forms, including viruses, worms, trojans, spyware, and adware.

Malware can be used for a variety of malicious purposes, including stealing sensitive information, disrupting computer operations, or causing damage to computer systems. Malware can be spread through various methods, such as infected email attachments, malicious links, or software downloads from untrusted sources.

To protect against malware, it is important to use reputable antivirus software and to keep software and operating systems up to date with the latest security patches. Additionally, it is essential to be vigilant when opening email attachments or clicking on links, as these can be common delivery methods for malware.



A software development architecture that breaks down complex applications into smaller, independent services that can be developed, deployed, and scaled independently.


Name Server

By utilizing name servers, internet users can bypass the complicated task of entering a website’s IP address each time they want to visit the site. Simply typing in the domain name, the request will then get sent directly to the businesses’ own personal server which responds with the exact digital location of their webpage.

Domain names are invaluable in helping visitors quickly find and access the content they require. To ensure that domain name lookups remain reliable, each must be associated with two dedicated Name Servers – primary and backup respectively. These essential components of the DNS system help translate domains into IP addresses so users can better navigate the internet using recognizable keywords instead of a string of numbers making up an IP address. One may out what any given domain’s name servers comprise by performing a WHOIS lookup.



Networks come in many shapes and sizes – from the small two-computer connection to a global network comprised of billions of devices. Think laptops, tablets, smartphones – but also TVs, gaming consoles, and even that new smart appliance you’ve been eyeing. No matter how big or small your setup is though it can be divided into one of two main categories: LANs (Local Area Networks) for connecting nearby machines and WANs (Wide Area Network) which covers much larger distances up to worldwide connections.


Operating System

The software that manages and controls the hardware and other software on a computer system.



A small chip inside of computers and other electronic devices, a processor or microprocessor, is like the brain. These tiny microchips do not only receive information – they can complete trillions upon trillions of calculations each second with mind-boggling accuracy.

Computers rely on their central processor, also known as a CPU or “central processing unit,” to carry out the instructions necessary for everyday functions. These CPUs are often developed by industry leaders such as Intel and AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) in an x86 architecture – however laptops and tablets may be powered by mobile processors from companies like ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) or Apple. No matter what device you have, its power lies within that tiny but powerful component.

Today’s CPUs are composed of multiple cores, each acting as an individual processor working in concert. A dual-core is made up of two processing units while a quad-core holds four – some workstations can contain even more processing power with 8, 12, or higher cores combined. To track your computer performance efficiently and accurately, monitoring utilities such as Windows Task Manager (Windows) or Activity Monitor (Mac OS) are used.

Computers are capable of executing many tasks without slowing, but they can struggle when presented with graphics-heavy workloads. Fortunately, modern desktops and laptops feature GPUs that are specifically optimized for processing highly detailed visuals. Desktop computers often contain dedicated video cards while mobile devices typically have GPU chips integrated into the motherboard.



A program is executable software that runs on a computer as compiled code that can run directly from the computer’s operating system. From software applications and operating systems, to scripts and games, programs are designed for execution on computer hardware. Programs are often referred to as applications and include office tools, web browsers, word processors, video games, and system utilities.

Programmers build programs through a complex process of coding, which gives instructions to the computer and directs it what actions to take. Once complete, source code files are transformed into executable software that can be run on various devices. By doing this they create powerful tools used by millions worldwide every day.


Proxy Server

Organizations, universities, and large businesses are increasingly using proxy servers to secure their networks. In addition to enhancing network performance, these proxies act as a filter – curating the sites that users have access to across the web. Proxies provide an extra layer of security for any establishment looking to protect its data while streamlining their online experience.

A proxy server is an essential tool for boosting the speed of internet access from a network. By utilizing its powerful caching system, recently visited web pages and files are stored on a local drive so that they don’t have to be downloaded repeatedly – offering faster navigation with less effort.

Proxy servers are a powerful tool for keeping networks secure by filtering the data that is allowed to enter. Primarily utilizing Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), they can control which websites users on the network have access to. Many organizations use them as an invaluable safeguard against objectionable content.




RAM or Random Access Memory is a common hardware component found in electronic devices including laptops, desktop PCs, tablets, and smartphones. In computers, RAM may be installed as memory modules such as DIMMs (Dual In-line Memory Modules) or SODIMMs (Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Modules). Commonly called RAM sticks – they comprise a series of dynamic random-access memory integrated circuits. In smartphones and tablets RAM is usually integrated into the device and cannot be removed.

Having enough RAM allows multiple programs to run with maximum efficiency, but when devices use nearly all the available memory it can cause applications to slow down. Adding more memory or opting for a higher-capacity device model can significantly enhance multitasking capabilities – allowing multiple applications to run simultaneously. Investing in additional RAM may be a step towards improving system efficiency and boosting productivity.

Memory and RAM are often used to mean the same thing, similar to a computer having 16 gigabytes of memory having 16GB of RAM. Whereas storage capacity – the amount of disk space the computer’s SSD or HDD allows for storing files remains static – system memory only stores data while the computer is turned on. While data stored in RAM is lost when powered down, powering the device back on reloads the operating system and applications with new information – providing an effective way to remedy some common technical issues.



Routers are hardworking hardware devices that facilitate the exchange of information between networks and computers. They act as gatekeepers, directing packets to their appropriate destinations while keeping logs, running a firewall, and managing networks for optimal functionality.

Home routers are the backbone of most home networks, granting access to both wired and wireless devices. Through the use of DHCP technology, each device is assigned a unique IP address for optimal data transmission speeds. Most routers provide Ethernet ports for physical connection with computers and other devices, however, by connecting switches or multiple switches you can virtually extend your network limits in order to add as many compatible connected entities as needed – all managed through one router.



Storage Area Network (SAN) is a powerful solution that facilitates fast, direct sharing of data between multiple computers. With SANs connecting them together, each machine can easily access the hard drives within as if they were their own local resources – opening up opportunities for collaboration and resource optimization across teams.

For businesses dealing with large amounts of data, a traditional single-server setup may not be enough to access and store all the necessary information. In such cases, setting up a Storage Area Network (SAN) can provide an efficient solution as it only requires adding hard drives rather than complex server systems in order to increase network storage capabilities.


Acting as the backbone of information technology, servers provide near-instant data access to computers on local and global networks. With their powerful processors and vast storage capabilities, they ensure that businesses stay connected in an increasingly digital world. A server may serve data to systems on a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) via the internet.

Server types include mail servers, web servers, and file servers – each running software that is specific to its purpose. With the right software, a regular desktop computer can become not only an effective server but also offer users unique and personalized network solutions. For larger businesses dealing with heavier data loads, specialized rack-mountable servers are available for efficiency in space and function.

Ensuring your server is properly equipped with the optimal hardware is essential to guarantee that web scripts run efficiently in real-time and data can be quickly read or written. Investing in a faster processor, ample RAM memory, fast hard drives/SSDs, and an upgraded network connection are all integral components of having a reliable server capable of handling increased workloads.


Computers are nothing without software – programs, applications, scripts, and instruction sets that keep them running. Installing new pieces of software is like giving your computer an upgrade and keeping it updated with the latest technology.

Software is a digital solution that packs big power into tiny files. In contrast to thick volumes of hardware, software programs are written in code by skilled computer programmers and compiled together as binary information saved onto hard drives. This virtual solution offers powerful upgrades without the cost of new hardware installation.

SQL (Structured Query Language)

A programming language used to manage and manipulate data in relational databases.


A switch is an essential piece of networking hardware that serves as a processor, connecting multiple devices and facilitating data transfers throughout the local area network. Usually small and flat-boxed in design, these efficient pieces of equipment contain anywhere from 4 to numerous Ethernet ports – making it possible for seamless delivery of packets within your office or enterprise space.

Networking switches provide a unique middle ground between an Ethernet hub and router. Rather than simply broadcasting data packets to all connected devices, as hubs do, switches filter the traffic and direct it towards its intended recipient – making them much more efficient for managing network bandwidth. However, their abilities are limited to local networks – switching external connections requires routing through a dedicated router first.



Stands for “Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol.”

TCP/IP is the standard suite of protocols used by computers and other devices to communicate over networks. This protocol suite serves as the basic foundation of the Internet. As the abbreviation implies, the TCP/IP suite includes both the Transport Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). Other protocols, such as the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), are also considered part of the standard suite.


URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

The address used to locate a resource on the internet, such as a web page or file.


User Experience (UX)

The overall experience a user has while interacting with a product, including ease of use, accessibility, and satisfaction.


User Interface (UI)

The visual, interactive part of a computer program, app, or website that allows users to interact with and control the software.



Utility programs are essential tools that help keep your computer running smoothly, secure it from potential threats, and unlock new possibilities. These small but powerful software applications perform actions such as monitoring system health to configuring important settings. There are operating system utilities that help to create passwords, alter fonts, and capture screenshots.

Disk utility software can scan disks for errors and manage disk partitions with ease so that you can quickly locate what you need among the vast amount of files in minimal time. Formatting is also made simpler to reduce tedious tasks associated with digital organization.

Backup software is an important utility as it performs regular backups of data and documents to an internal drive, an external drive, or cloud storage. This allows for the restoration of damaged or lost files. Windows and Mac computer operating systems both include local backup utilities and limited cloud backup storage.

Network utilities provide an all-in-one solution for keeping track of any computer’s network activity. They can give you real-time visibility, allowing you to monitor inbound and outbound traffic, as well as map your entire infrastructure and detect wireless networks around the area. Network utility programs also keep log files of a computer’s network activity.

System Monitoring utility software provides insight into a computer’s performance – showing how much memory and processing power is available for use and listing every program running on the system. It also offers a way to control unwanted or unresponsive programs directly from within the monitor suite itself. Both Windows Task Manager and MacOS Activity Monitor provide monitoring interfaces.

Antivirus software is a critical utility for keeping your computer safe and secure, acting as an essential line of defense in the battle with malicious viruses. The latest Windows systems come pre-packaged with their own antivirus utility – but users may choose to upgrade their protection through third-party options that provide further scanning power and real-time alerts.



The creation of a virtual version of something, such as an operating system, a server, a storage device, or network resources.



A type of malicious software that can infect a computer system and cause damage or steal data.



Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) creates powerful networks combining together devices from any number of wired and wireless LANs. It gives IT administrators a comprehensive solution for managing the data traffic within their organizations, allowing them to easily create virtual local area networks with increased flexibility, enhanced security and reduced costs.

To establish a Virtual Local Area Network, specialized hardware such as routers and switches are required to support VLAN configuration. The equipment can then be managed with tailored software tools that give the network administrator control over how individual ports or clusters of ports are assigned per switch.


VPN (Virtual Private Network)

A VPN, or Virtual Private Network, is a technology that provides a secure and private connection between two or more devices over the internet. It does so by creating a virtual tunnel that encrypts all the data transmitted between the devices, making it difficult for anyone to intercept or eavesdrop on the communication.

VPN is typically used to protect sensitive data such as online banking transactions, private emails, or confidential business information. It also allows users to access online content that might be restricted or censored in their region, by connecting to a server located in a different country.

To use a VPN, a user needs to download and install VPN software on their device and connect to a VPN server. Once the connection is established, all the internet traffic is routed through the VPN server, which masks the user’s IP address and location, providing them with an anonymous online presence.



A Wide Area Network (WAN) is the key to unifying a global workforce, no matter how widespread locations may be. Companies can use WANs to connect their HQ with remote offices anywhere in the world and ensure secure access for every team member. The internet itself acts as an enormous international WAN by granting user-level network access on a broad scale – further promoting open collaboration across the globe.


Web Browser

A web browser is an internet application used for accessing and viewing websites. Google Chrome, Apple Safari, Microsoft Edge, and Mozilla Firefox are some commonly known web browsers. By processing HTML, web browsers are able to render the websites viewed on screens each day. From texts and links to images – cascading style sheets and JavaScript functions – it all combines together with precision in order to bring web pages functioning for visitors.

The web is constantly evolving, and modern browsers work to keep pace. With Ajax technology for dynamic page updates, a huge library of CSS effects for rich visual design elements, and cookies that remember your settings across unfamiliar sites – these advancements have taken online interactivity to new levels. Different browsers may render websites differently causing some compatibility issues depending on the website being viewed, so it is a good idea for users to have alternate browsers available to switch between when browsing the internet.



Wi-Fi is a powerful communication technology that connects computers and other devices through radio waves, with its standards developed by the  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and approved by the Wi-Fi Alliance. The possibilities for enhanced connection are virtually endless. Wi-Fi standards include: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, and 802.11ac.

Wi-Fi is quickly becoming the norm for how devices interact with wireless networks. Most modern computers, mobile devices and game consoles come equipped with built-in chips that let users easily find and connect to local routers without needing any physical cables or extra components. Once connected, those same gadgets can communicate not only directly between each other on a single network but also indirectly via their router when it’s hooked up to an internet connection from home modem services like DSL/Cable ISPs – although note there’s no guarantee of access in every situation.

To ensure your devices can connect to a wireless router, it’s important you check that the specific 802.11 standards are compatible. Any certified Wi-Fi device should work with any other certified access point, however, if an older piece of equipment is paired with a new router configured for only newer technology (eg: 802.11n) they may not be able to communicate due to different compatibility levels and settings changes made by users or administrators.

The seventh generation of Wi-Fi (Wi-Fi 7) connectivity will be standard with 320MHz channel bandwidths and will enable extremely high-speed Wi-Fi, including 5Gbps, to phones which is more than double the speeds they’re capable of today.



With the increasingly prevalent presence of wireless technologies in computing, it can be hard to make sure you have what you need. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are two popular types that allow a computer to wirelessly connect with other devices or networks. It is likely your device has some combination of both, however if only one type exists, chances are its Wi-Fi as this technology enables communication between computers via routers connected up for internet access throughout any network range.

Bluetooth technology offers convenience and portability for items such as keyboards, mice, and headsets. Some devices may use infrared or other proprietary technologies. It is best to double check your system requirements prior to purchase so you can make an informed decision that is compatible and best suits your needs.



Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a network that permits electronic devices to connect and communicate wirelessly. WLAN) offer the convenience of connecting devices without any cables, allowing users to access content wirelessly with Wi-Fi technology.

The prevalence of wireless devices has been accompanied by a steady rise in WLAN usage. Many routers now offer the ability to provide an efficient Wi-Fi connection for multiple compatible devices like laptops, tablets, smartphones and even smart home controllers within range of its signal. As such, these versatile wireless routers often link up with other internet-connected hardware and grant access to connected users accordingly. Networks can be merged together through bridges that connect LANs and WLANs into one unified system providing more flexibility when utilizing both wired or wireless communication capabilities on the same network.